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Rajasthan is among the oldest lands of the world, is situated around Aravalli mountain. In south-eastern and eastern parts of Rajasthan, human beings lived near the Bank of Banas, Gambhiri, Bedach, and Luni rivers, since primeval time. Prehistoric life was also found in the western region. History of human origin in Rajasthan can be classified in three stone ages:

  • Early Stone Age – The initial and rising stage when human used stone made tools. In Rajasthan such civilisations existed near banks of Chambal and Banas. These civilisations were found in the districts – Ajmer, Alwar, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Jaipur, Jhalawar, Jodhpur, Jalore, Pali, Tonk etc.
  • Mid Stone Age – The second development in human history is around 50 thousand years ago. The tools found were pointed long, rectangular and round shaped. These civilisations were located in Chittorgarh and Viratnagar in the valleys of Bairach river.
  • Post Stone Age – It can be traced to as early as 10 thousand years back. Copper stone tools and culture information is reflected. Found in the excavations of Bagaur, Aahar, and Gilund in Udaipur, Ganeshwar in Sikar and Kalibanga in Sri Ganganagar.

Let us look at the prominent civilization which flourished in the state.           Kalibanga Civilization

  • It is an ancient civilization located in Hanumangarh district of Rajasthan.
  • Contemporary to Harappan and Mohenjo-Daro
  • Found in the valley of Saraswati and Drishadvati river.
  • Meaning of Kalibanga – Black Bangles
  • It was first explored by Amalanand Ghosh in 1952. The excavation work was done under the supervision of Shri Brijwasi Lal, Shri Balkrishana Thapar, M.D Khare, K.M Srivastava and S.P Jain.
  • Ploughed field in a grid pattern was found.
  • Door-fixing and burnt brick flooring in the room was found only in this civilization.
  • Making of earthen pottery, human head of clay, and a seal depicting a tiger.
  • Script found written on the earthen pots and seals was Saindhava (written from right to left in overlapping manner)
  • This site gave an evidence of Earthquake, which is considered as reason of its end.
  • Fire altars were found revealing religious belief of people.
  • A wooden furrow with seven fire altars placed in a row tells about practice of sacrifice.
  • Seal of a bull depicting presence of powerful folk art.

          Aahad Civilization

  • In an old town of Aahad called Aaghatpur, a 1600 long and 550 wide excavation of Dhulakot.
  • Two sites found in south-eastern Rajasthan are Aahad and Gilund.
  • It is releated to Banas culture.
  • Initially, discovered by Kirti Vyas in 1953, then by Ratna Chandra Agarwal in 1956. Later, a massive excavation was done under Hansmukh dhirajlal Sankalia between 1961-1962.
  • Aahad civilization can be categorized under two periods – Lower (Period 1) denotes copper age and Upper (Period 2) denotes iron age.
  • The ancient name of the Aahad was Tamravati Nagri because it produced copper tools at large scale. Such tools have been found in excavation.
  • Black and red colour earthenware have been found which were subjected to inverted firing style.
  • There was highest 6 stoves found in a house.
  • According to the Carbon-14 method analysis, the period of the copper age civilization is 95 B.C. – 110 B.C.

            Aryan Civilization

  • The evidence pf this civilization is the earthenware found in Anupgarh and Tarkhanwala Dera.
  • Excavation carried out in Noah (Bharatpur), Jodhpura (Jaipur), Viratnagar (Jaipur) and Sumari (Jhunjhunu)
  • It belongs to the iron age.

          Bairath Civilization

  • The capital of ancient Matasya Janapada was Viratnagar (Bairath).
  • It was contemporary of prehistoric period of Sindhu Valley.
  • Mauryan period and medieval age remaining has been found in the excavation
  • Coins of Meander, Ashoka-Bhibru Inscription found by John Bert.
  • It is situated in Beejak mountains.
  • Excavation was done under Neel Mathur and Kailashnath Dixit from 1977-1978.
  • Remains of a circle Buddha temple, ornamental utensils like Triratna, Swastika on wheel etc.

          Ganeshwar Civilization

  • Excavation carried out by R.C Agarwal and Vijay Kumar.
  • Contemporary of pre-Harappan and Harappan civilisation.
  • It is also known as Mother of Copper Age.
  • It was situated alongside the Kantil river in Neem ka Thana tehsil of Sikar district.
  • It is considered as 2800 oldest copper age culture.
  • As it is near Khetri copper Reserves, many copper implements found here.

          Rangmahal Civilization

  • Located in Hanumangarh district.
  • Excavation was started by Swedish company – Hammarid of the Mound in between 1952-1954.
  • Things found here were – utensils, idols of clay. Metal ornaments, utensils for worship and 105 copper coins.

          Bagaur Civilization

  • It is situated in a place in Bhilwara district at distance of 25 kms from Kothari river.
  • Virendranath Mishr and Dr. L.S Laishani were incharge for excavating this site in 1976.
  • Stonge age tools like hammer, Gofan balls, made up of bones of cow, ox, pig and jackal.
  • Evidence of cattle feeding was found.

         Balathal Civilization

  • Located in Vallabhnagar tehsil of Udaipur district on Banas river.
  • It was excavated by V.N. Mishr in 1993.
  • 3000 B.C – 2500 B.C. period Copper stone age remains have been found.

Important Historical Discoveries

          Place         District           Details
  Gararda        Bundi   Country’s first Bird -rider Rock Painting
  Iswal       Udaipur   Remains of Iron age civilization
  Chandrawati       Sirohi Remains of 1800 temples
  Chandrawati       Jhalawar Remains of temples of 11-12th century near river Chandrabhaga
  Lodrawa       Jaisalmer   Capitals of panwar    rulers
  Ola Region      Jaisalmer 60000-100000 years old stone age axe
  Rangmahal      Hanumangarh Remains of copper age
  Dadathora       Bikaner Remains of minor stone- age
    Ajhiyana      Bhilwara Remains of copper age
  Dadeekar         Alwar 5000-7000 old rock painting
  Tipatia       Kota Pre-historic rock paintings
  Sunari      Jhunjhunu Oldest Iron furnance
  Naliyasar      Jaipur Appolodots coin called Raid
  Jahajpur      Bhilwara Remains of Mahabharat age civilization


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