The rich culture of Rajasthan is a mixture of its unique heritage, history, food, clothing, festivals, tradition, music and drama. Folk songs are one such medium of expression of a culture. They are joyful songs which represent the condition of society of contemporary times. They are based on every occasion of life.
Rajasthan folk songs usually depict Shringar Rasa. These songs have been passed from one generation to other but nobody knows about their composer and exact time of composition. Another feature is, the emotions behind the song enjoys predominance over language.
Folk songs of Rajasthan can be divided into following categories based upon the occasion, castes, professions and region.
- SONGS OF COMMOM MAN
- Most of the folk songs fall under this category. Females sing these songs on various occasions like festivals, religious ceremonies, during marriages and engagements, on birth of a child, etc.
- Ghodi song is sung when groom rides on horse during Var-Nikasi ceremony.
- Jala song depicts the excitement of ladies of bride’s family when they go to see the arrival of the groom.
- To welcome the groom’s procession (baraat), female sings Seethna song.
- On the occasion of the child’s birth, women sing Jachcha song to praise and congratulate the pregnant lady. They express their blessings and happiness through it.
- The popular Ghoomar song is the identity of Rajasthan in the whole world. It is sung during Gangaur and Teej celebrations.
- On gauri worship day, Ghudla song is sung to symbolize bravery of Rao Satal Ji.
- Krishna leela songs of Bharatpur and Kaman and Languria dedicated to Kaila Devi of Karauli are very popular. These are sung to worship god and goddess.
- Other prevalent folk songs of Rajasthan are Gorband, Panihari, Indodi, Kaagla, Supna, Oliyun, Kurja.
- SONGS OF PROFESSIONAL CASTES
- There are some castes in the state that have been practicing music as profession since ancient times. It began with the purpose to entertain royal families and common masses.
- Such castes are Dholi, Mirasi, Langa, Dhadhi, Kalavant, Bhat, Rao, Jogi, Kamad, Vairagi, Gandharv, Bhope, Bhawai, Rana and Kalbelia.
- Maand Gayaki is a style of singing which is sung by professionals in different areas of the state with slight difference of notes. Various styles are Maand of Udaipur, Maand of Jaipur, Maand of Bikaner, Maand of Jaisalmer.
- Garh songs were sung when feudal lords arranged events to honour Royal Darbars and other wealthy people.
- SONGS BASED ON REGION
They can be classified into following:
- Desert Songs
Area- Jaisalmer, Barmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur.
Songs- Peepli, Ratan Rano, Mumal, Ghooghari, Kevda.
Castes- Kamad, Bhope, Sargade,Lange, Mirasi, Kalawant.
- Mountains Songs
Area- Udaipur, Dungarpur, Banswara, Pratapgarh, Sirohi, Mount Abu.
Songs- Patelya, Beechhiyo, Lalar.
Castes- Bheel, Meena, Garasia, Saharia, Damore.
- Plain Songs
Area- Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, Jaipur, Karauli.
Songs- Bhakti and Shringar Rasa.