POLITICAL INTEGRATION OF RAJASTHAN

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INTRODUCTION

  • Rajasthan was earlier known as Rajputana during the British rule. It was comprised of 19 princely states, 3 Thikanas and British ruled region of Ajmer-Merwara. All the princely state rulers were honored with gun salute while this was not available to the Thikanas.
  • Among all the states the oldest state was Mewar which was established by the Guhil dynasty in 565 A.D. whereas the latest was the Jhalawar state founded by Jhala Madan Singh in 1835 A.D.
  • In terms of area, Jodhpur was the largest while smallest was the Shahpura.
  • All India Native Rajya Lok Parishad’s Rajputana Provincial Sabha took a resolution on 9th September 1946 stating that all the states of Rajputana needs to unite and join the Indian federation as one big state instead of small separate units.
  • In its another session, the word ‘Rajasthan’ was used for the first time by the Sabha. Earlier, it was suggested by Colonel Todd 117 years ago.
  • On 27th June 1948 a ‘State Department’ was set up by the Government of India to resolve the state related matters.
  • Minister of department, Saradar Patel, appealed the rulers to join the Indian federation before 15th August.
  • While all the princely states agreed to sign the Instrument of Annexation, the rulers of the four states i.e., Dungarpur, Bharatpur, Alwar and Jodhpur wanted to remain independent as they were not inclined to join either Pakistan or India.
  • However, due to wisdom and efforts of Sardar Patel and V.P. Menon all of them signed the agreement before 15th August 1947 to join the Indian dominion.
  • Finally, the formation of Rajasthan started on 18th March 1948 which continued till 1st November 1956. It got completed in seven phases.

SEVEN PHASES OF THE INTEGRATION 

FIRST PHASE – MATASYA SANGH 

  • At first Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli were merged in a union on 18th March 1948.
  • The union was named as Matasya on the suggestion of the Alwar leader Kanahiya lal Manikya Lal Munshi. It was inspired by the Mahabharata.
  • Jat leader Deshraj protested against the inauguration and the formation, calling it anti-Jats. After the inclusion of Jat representatives the protest came to an end.
  • On 18th March 1948, Central Minister N.V. Gadgil inaugurated the union.
  • Alwar was made the capital.
  • Its members were as follows
  • Rajpramukh – Dholpur king Uday Bhan Singh,
  • Deputy Rajpramukh – Maharaj of Karauli
  • Prime Minister- Alwar Prajamandal leader Shobha Ram Kumbhawat
  • Cabinet Members- Shri Bhola Nath, Yugal Kishore Chaturvedi, Chiranji Lal Sharma, Mangal Singh
  • Administrator – an I.C.S officer

 

SECOND PHASE- POORVA RAJASTHAN

  • Poorva Rajasthan was formed on 25th March 1948.
  • It was inaugurated by N.V. Gadgil.
  • Kota, Bundi, Jhalawar, Banswara, Dungarpur, Pratapgarh, Kishangarh, Shahpura, Tonk and Kushalgarh were merged.
  • Kota was made the capital while its ruler Bhim Singh became Rajpramukh. This decision was taken considering the seniority of the ruler and the size of the area.
  • Bundi and Dungarpur rulers were elected as senior and junior deputy Rajpramukh respectively.
  • Gokul Lal Asawa became the Prime Minister.

 

THIRD PHASE- SANYUKTA RAJASTHAN 

  • Udaipur was merged in the Poorva Rajasthan union on 18th April 1948.
  • It was renamed as Sanyukt Rajasthan.
  • It was inaugurated on 19th April 1948 by Jawahar Lal Nehru.
  • Maharana Bhoopal Singh was nominated as permanent Rajpramukh.
  • Maharawal of Kota became Deputy Rajpramukh.
  • Manikya Lal Verma was named as Prime Minister.

 

FOURTH PHASE- GREATER RAJASTHAN

  • A Rajasthan Movement Committee was created by the Samajwadi Party, under the chairmanship of Dr. Ram Manohar Lohiya.
  • The objective was to prepare a blueprint for the formation of Greater Rajasthan.
  • It was inaugurated by Sardar Vallabh Pate in Durbar Hall of Jaipur City Palace.
  • Maharaja Bhoopal Singh of Udaipur was made Maharajpramukh.
  • Jaipur’s Sawai Man Singh II became the Rajpramukh and Maharao Bhim Singh became Deputy Rajpramukh.
  • For the status of capital, Jaipur and Jodhpur were the strong contenders but due to geographical position and availability of water resources Jaipur was made the capital.
  • Prime Minister position was given to Pandit Hiralal Shashtri. He became the first Prime Minister of the Greater Rajasthan.

 

FIFTH PHASE- SANYUKTA VRIHATTA RAJASTHAN 

  • Matasya union was amalgamated with Greater Rajasthan forming Sanyukta Vrihatta (Greater) Rajasthan on 15th May 1949.
  • Alwar and Karauli wanted to be part of Rajasthan while Dholpur and Bharatpur desired to join Uttar Pradesh on the basis of the language.
  • Then Secretary to the Government of India, V.P Menon, formed a committee led by Dr. Shankar Rai to conduct a referendum to know the public opinion.
  • The committee suggested the union of Matasya Sangh and Greater Rajasthan into Sanyukta Greater/Vrihatta Rajasthan.
  • It was created on 15th May 1949.

 

SIXTH PHASE- RAJASTHAN SANGH 

  • The only remaining state Sirohi was added into the union on 26th January 1950.
  • It led to formation of Rajasthan Sangh.
  • Finally, it was named as Rajasthan on the very same day.

 

SEVENTH PHASE- RAJASTHAN 

  • Eventually, the state formed after the enforcement of State Reorganization Act 1956 on 1st November 1956.
  • Ajmer-Merwara, Abu tehsil and Sunel Tappa region of Bhanpura tehsil of Mandsaur district of Madhya Pradesh were bring in the Rajasthan state.
  • Sinroj sub-division of Kota was included in Madhya Pradesh.
  • The designation of Rajpramukh was replaced by the position of Governor.
  • Privy purse for the state rulers were also abolished.
  • Initially, Rajasthan cam under the category of ‘B’ grade states but after the enforcement of the State Reorganization Act 1956, it was incorporated in ‘A’ grade.
  • Rajasthan day is celebrated on 30th March every year to mark the anniversary of the event when an important unit ‘Vrihatta Rajasthan’ was established.
  • Thus, political integration was completed after joining 19 princely states, 3 thikanas and 1 centrally administered region (Ajmer) into one state called ‘Rajasthan’.
  • The first Chief Minister of the state was Pandit Heera Lal Shashtri and Gurumukh Nihal Singh took over as first Governor.

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