RIVERS OF RAJASTHAN | RAS EXAM

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INTRODUCTION

  • Rajasthan, being a driest state of the country covers only 1% of total surface of water resources in India.
  • The river water in Rajasthan is divided by the great Indian watershed at Aravali hills. Rivers in the state can be categorized into three types of flow
  1. Rivers falling in Arabian sea- Luni, Mahi, Som, Jakham,, Sabarmati, Sukari
  2. Rivers falling into Bay of Bengal- Chambal, Kothari, Kali Sindh, Khari, Gambhiri, Banas, Banganga, Parvati, Bedach
  3. Internal water streams- Kantali, Kakni and Ghagghar
  • There are 14 major basins which further get splited into 59 sub-basins.
  • In Rajasthan, 60% area has internal flow system due to lack of rainfall. Only two rivers are perennial and flows throughout the year – Chambal and Mahi.
  • Churu and Bikaner are two such districts which do not have any river at all.
  • Maximum river flows in Kota and Chittorgarh districts.
  • Rajasthan has following confluences (Triveni Sangam)
  1. Banas-Chambal-Seep called as Rameshwaram in Sawai Madhopur.
  2. Banas-Menal-Bedach called as Menal in Bhilwara
  3. Banas-Dai-Khari called as Beesalpur in Tonk
  4. Mahi-Som-Jakham called as Baneshwar in Dungarpur
  • Banganga and Chambal are only two rivers that falls directly into the Yamuna river.
  • Three rivers that passes through the maximum number of districts are Chambal, Banas, and Luni. These flow through 6 districts.

         MAJOR RIVERS OF RAJASTHAN

          CHAMBAL

  • It was also known as Charmanvati and Kamdhenu river in primeval times.
  • Its origin can be traced from Janapav Hill which is at Vindhyanchal peak in Manpur of South Mhow in Madhya Pradesh.
  • Then it enters from Chaurasigarh in Rajasthan.
  • Near Bhainsroadgarh, a river called Bamni meets to Chambal. There is located a waterfall called Chuliya Fall.
  • Dams built on this river are – Jawahar Sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar, Gandhi Sagar and Kota Barrage.
  • Its tributaries are – Banas, Kalisindh, Parvati, Bamni, and Kurari.
  • It flows through – Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dholpur district and enters into Yamuna at Itaava district and finally directs towards Bay of Bengal.
  • Out of its total length 965 kms, it covers only 135 kms in Rajasthan.
  • It is considered to be longest river in the Rajasthan state.

          BANAS

  • Banas means hope of the forest.
  • Only longest river in the state which has full flow. It is 512 km long.
  • Aravalli hill near Kumbhalgarh in Rajsamand is the source point of the river.
  • It covers Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, Ajmer and Tonk districts.
  • After Tonk it joins Chambal in Rameshwaram Sangam of Sawai Madhopur.
  • Kothari, Khari, Bedach, Dhundh, Mashi and Morel are its branches.
  • It is dependent on rainy season.
  • Beesalpur Dam is built on this river in Tonk.
  • Centre govt. initatiated a scheme called Banas land water conservation in between 1999-2000. The project is spread over four districts – Tonk, Jaipur, Sawai Madhopur and Dausa.

           MAHI

  • The initiate point of the river is the Malwa Plateau in Ammouru near Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh.
  • It is directed towards Rajasthan in Khandu village in Banswara.
  • It flows through Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratapgarh and then enters Gujarat to ultimately fall into Gulf of Khambat.
  • Its tributaries are – Soam, Jakham, Banas, Chap, Erav and Eiran.
  • Out of its total length 576 kms, it covers 171kms in Rajasthan.
  • It is also named as Bagad and Ganga of Kanthal.
  • Dams built over it are – Mahi Bajaj Sagar in Loharia village of Banswara and Kadana Dam in Panchmahal of Gujarat.

          LUNI

  • Nag hills near Ajmer is considered as its origin point.
  • It flows through Ajmer, Nagaur, Pali, Jodhpur, Barmer and Jalore districts and the turn towards Gujarat and vanishes into Rann of Kutch.
  • Luni is the only river to flow in the west direction of the Aravalli
  • After crossing Balotra in Barmer, the water becomes salty.
  • Its tributaries are – leelari, Sagai, Sukadi, Meethari, Jojari, Jawai, Guhiya, Saraswati.
  • Its total length is 495 kms and it flows through 330 kms in Rajasthan.
  • It is the longest river of the west and also the longest which flows from east to west.
  • It is the third longest river of the desert in the world.
  • At origin point it is named as Sagarmati, then called Saraswati and at last Luni. The old name was Lavanvatti.
  • Jaswant Sagar Dam is built on the river.
  • Jojari, one of its tributaries, does not originates from Aravalli range.

          GHAGGHAR

  • Origin point of Ghagghar is Kalka in Shimla.
  • It enters in Rajasthan through Tibbi in Hanumangarh after flowing through Ambala, Patiala, and Hissar districts and later disappears into the desert of Bhatner.
  • Though it gets flooded so much during rainy season that it reaches the Fort Abbas in the east.
  • Its water bed is called Naali in Rajasthan.
  • Another name for the river is Dead River/Mrit Nadi.

          PARVATI

  • The source point is Vindhyachal of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Coming from M.P. it joins Chambal in Bundi district of Rajasthan.
  • It is one of the tributaries of the Chambal.

         KALI SINDH

  • It is also a tributary of Chambal.
  • It originates near Baagli in Dewas of M.P.
  • After flowing through Kota and Jhalawar it joins Chambal near Nanera.
  • Tributaries of Kali Sindh are – Parwan, Niwaj, Aahu, Ujad and Chauli.

          KAKNI

  • It springs out from the hills of Kotari village near Jaisalmer and moves toward Bhuj lake in Gujarat.
  • Other names for this river are Masurdi and Kakneya.

          BANGANGA

  • Its beginning point is Virat Nagar (Bairath) hills in Jaipur.
  • It moves in east direction, flowing through Bharatpur it goes to Yamuna in Agra.
  • Jaipur city gets it water from Ramgarh Dam built over this river.
  • The river is 380 kms long.
  • Also known as Arjun ki Ganga

          SABARMATI

  • Origin point is Aravalli hills near Udaipur.
  • It flows downwards to Gulf of Khambat in Gujarat.
  • It covers very small area in Rajasthan.
  • Its tributaries are – Hatmati, Meshwa, Vankal, Majam, Vetrak and Gandhinagar.

          SOM

  • It starts from Beechhameda of Bawalwada forest in Udaipur.
  • It is tributary of Mahi river and joins it near Beneshwar.
  • Tributaries of Som river are – Jakham, Gomti and Sarani.

          JAKHAM

  • The origin point is near Chhoti Sadri in Udaipur.
  • It comes flowing through Pratapgarh entering into Dhariabad of Udaipur.
  • It joins Som river in Udaipur.
  • It is a tributary of Mahi river.

          BEDACH

  • Aahad river after flowing through Udaisagar becomes Bedach river.
  • Also, known as Aayad.
  • It begins from Gogunda hills of the Udaipur and further merge with Banas river in Bigod of Bhilwara.
  • Vaman, Gijari and Gambhiri are its tributaries. 

          KOTHARI

  • It is tributary of Banas river.
  • The origin point of the river is Diwer of Rajsamand and joins Banas river in Bhilwara.
  • Meja dam has been built over it which is main water supplier to Bhilwara city.

          KANTALI

  • It springs out from the Khandela hills in Sikar district.
  • It is a seasonal river.
  • After flowing through Sikar and Jhunjhunu it disappears near Churu border.

          SARASWATI

  • According to Vedas and Hindu mythology, river Saraswati is named after Goddess Saraswati.
  • It is believed to flow under the desert of Rajasthan.
  • The scientist of Central Arid Zone Research Institute of Jodhpur discovered in 1979.
  • The flowing area of the river is named as Torawati Highland. 

          JAWAI

  • It originates in Gauria village of Pali.
  • It merges with Luni river in Barmer after flowing through Pali and Jalore districts.
  • In Sumerpur of Pali, Jawai Dam is built over the river. 

          ROHILI

  • The river was constructed under a plan.
  • When flood came in Kawas town of Barmer, the water was directed towards this river.

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