- Rajasthan, being a driest state of the country covers only 1% of total surface of water resources in India.
- The river water in Rajasthan is divided by the great Indian watershed at Aravali hills. Rivers in the state can be categorized into three types of flow
- Rivers falling in Arabian sea- Luni, Mahi, Som, Jakham,, Sabarmati, Sukari
- Rivers falling into Bay of Bengal- Chambal, Kothari, Kali Sindh, Khari, Gambhiri, Banas, Banganga, Parvati, Bedach
- Internal water streams- Kantali, Kakni and Ghagghar
- There are 14 major basins which further get splited into 59 sub-basins.
- In Rajasthan, 60% area has internal flow system due to lack of rainfall. Only two rivers are perennial and flows throughout the year – Chambal and Mahi.
- Churu and Bikaner are two such districts which do not have any river at all.
- Maximum river flows in Kota and Chittorgarh districts.
- Rajasthan has following confluences (Triveni Sangam)
- Banas-Chambal-Seep called as Rameshwaram in Sawai Madhopur.
- Banas-Menal-Bedach called as Menal in Bhilwara
- Banas-Dai-Khari called as Beesalpur in Tonk
- Mahi-Som-Jakham called as Baneshwar in Dungarpur
- Banganga and Chambal are only two rivers that falls directly into the Yamuna river.
- Three rivers that passes through the maximum number of districts are Chambal, Banas, and Luni. These flow through 6 districts.
MAJOR RIVERS OF RAJASTHAN
- It was also known as Charmanvati and Kamdhenu river in primeval times.
- Its origin can be traced from Janapav Hill which is at Vindhyanchal peak in Manpur of South Mhow in Madhya Pradesh.
- Then it enters from Chaurasigarh in Rajasthan.
- Near Bhainsroadgarh, a river called Bamni meets to Chambal. There is located a waterfall called Chuliya Fall.
- Dams built on this river are – Jawahar Sagar, Rana Pratap Sagar, Gandhi Sagar and Kota Barrage.
- Its tributaries are – Banas, Kalisindh, Parvati, Bamni, and Kurari.
- It flows through – Kota, Bundi, Sawai Madhopur, Karauli and Dholpur district and enters into Yamuna at Itaava district and finally directs towards Bay of Bengal.
- Out of its total length 965 kms, it covers only 135 kms in Rajasthan.
- It is considered to be longest river in the Rajasthan state.
- Banas means hope of the forest.
- Only longest river in the state which has full flow. It is 512 km long.
- Aravalli hill near Kumbhalgarh in Rajsamand is the source point of the river.
- It covers Udaipur, Chittorgarh, Bhilwara, Ajmer and Tonk districts.
- After Tonk it joins Chambal in Rameshwaram Sangam of Sawai Madhopur.
- Kothari, Khari, Bedach, Dhundh, Mashi and Morel are its branches.
- It is dependent on rainy season.
- Beesalpur Dam is built on this river in Tonk.
- Centre govt. initatiated a scheme called Banas land water conservation in between 1999-2000. The project is spread over four districts – Tonk, Jaipur, Sawai Madhopur and Dausa.
- The initiate point of the river is the Malwa Plateau in Ammouru near Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh.
- It is directed towards Rajasthan in Khandu village in Banswara.
- It flows through Dungarpur, Banswara and Pratapgarh and then enters Gujarat to ultimately fall into Gulf of Khambat.
- Its tributaries are – Soam, Jakham, Banas, Chap, Erav and Eiran.
- Out of its total length 576 kms, it covers 171kms in Rajasthan.
- It is also named as Bagad and Ganga of Kanthal.
- Dams built over it are – Mahi Bajaj Sagar in Loharia village of Banswara and Kadana Dam in Panchmahal of Gujarat.
- Nag hills near Ajmer is considered as its origin point.
- It flows through Ajmer, Nagaur, Pali, Jodhpur, Barmer and Jalore districts and the turn towards Gujarat and vanishes into Rann of Kutch.
- Luni is the only river to flow in the west direction of the Aravalli
- After crossing Balotra in Barmer, the water becomes salty.
- Its tributaries are – leelari, Sagai, Sukadi, Meethari, Jojari, Jawai, Guhiya, Saraswati.
- Its total length is 495 kms and it flows through 330 kms in Rajasthan.
- It is the longest river of the west and also the longest which flows from east to west.
- It is the third longest river of the desert in the world.
- At origin point it is named as Sagarmati, then called Saraswati and at last Luni. The old name was Lavanvatti.
- Jaswant Sagar Dam is built on the river.
- Jojari, one of its tributaries, does not originates from Aravalli range.
- Origin point of Ghagghar is Kalka in Shimla.
- It enters in Rajasthan through Tibbi in Hanumangarh after flowing through Ambala, Patiala, and Hissar districts and later disappears into the desert of Bhatner.
- Though it gets flooded so much during rainy season that it reaches the Fort Abbas in the east.
- Its water bed is called Naali in Rajasthan.
- Another name for the river is Dead River/Mrit Nadi.
- The source point is Vindhyachal of Madhya Pradesh.
- Coming from M.P. it joins Chambal in Bundi district of Rajasthan.
- It is one of the tributaries of the Chambal.
- It is also a tributary of Chambal.
- It originates near Baagli in Dewas of M.P.
- After flowing through Kota and Jhalawar it joins Chambal near Nanera.
- Tributaries of Kali Sindh are – Parwan, Niwaj, Aahu, Ujad and Chauli.
- It springs out from the hills of Kotari village near Jaisalmer and moves toward Bhuj lake in Gujarat.
- Other names for this river are Masurdi and Kakneya.
- Its beginning point is Virat Nagar (Bairath) hills in Jaipur.
- It moves in east direction, flowing through Bharatpur it goes to Yamuna in Agra.
- Jaipur city gets it water from Ramgarh Dam built over this river.
- The river is 380 kms long.
- Also known as Arjun ki Ganga
- Origin point is Aravalli hills near Udaipur.
- It flows downwards to Gulf of Khambat in Gujarat.
- It covers very small area in Rajasthan.
- Its tributaries are – Hatmati, Meshwa, Vankal, Majam, Vetrak and Gandhinagar.
- It starts from Beechhameda of Bawalwada forest in Udaipur.
- It is tributary of Mahi river and joins it near Beneshwar.
- Tributaries of Som river are – Jakham, Gomti and Sarani.
- The origin point is near Chhoti Sadri in Udaipur.
- It comes flowing through Pratapgarh entering into Dhariabad of Udaipur.
- It joins Som river in Udaipur.
- It is a tributary of Mahi river.
- Aahad river after flowing through Udaisagar becomes Bedach river.
- Also, known as Aayad.
- It begins from Gogunda hills of the Udaipur and further merge with Banas river in Bigod of Bhilwara.
- Vaman, Gijari and Gambhiri are its tributaries.
- It is tributary of Banas river.
- The origin point of the river is Diwer of Rajsamand and joins Banas river in Bhilwara.
- Meja dam has been built over it which is main water supplier to Bhilwara city.
- It springs out from the Khandela hills in Sikar district.
- It is a seasonal river.
- After flowing through Sikar and Jhunjhunu it disappears near Churu border.
- According to Vedas and Hindu mythology, river Saraswati is named after Goddess Saraswati.
- It is believed to flow under the desert of Rajasthan.
- The scientist of Central Arid Zone Research Institute of Jodhpur discovered in 1979.
- The flowing area of the river is named as Torawati Highland.
- It originates in Gauria village of Pali.
- It merges with Luni river in Barmer after flowing through Pali and Jalore districts.
- In Sumerpur of Pali, Jawai Dam is built over the river.
- The river was constructed under a plan.
- When flood came in Kawas town of Barmer, the water was directed towards this river.