FOLK MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS | RAS PRELIMS AND MAINS EXAM
Musical instruments are important part of any music. It makes the folk song and folk drama more expressive. Music of Rajasthan is soft and have peculiar sound. The instruments used for this purpose are made up of different materials found in the nature such as shells, bamboos, clay pots etc. these enhances the sweetness and charm of the folk music.
The folk music instruments are classified into following major types:
- Tat Instruments – these are instruments which have strings in it.
- Jantar: It look like Veena and has two tumbas (round shaped hollow big attachments). It has Daand made of bamboo with twenty- two Purdas (made of crocodile skin with wax). There are five to sex wired over Purdas. Bhopas of Gujar community hang it around neck and use it to sing Bhagawad story.
- Ravanhattha: It is a famous instrument used by Bhopas of Bheel community to recite Bhad of Pabu Ji. It is made up of half coconut and animal skin over it. Gaj is a bow shaped part with strings of horse hair with tiny bells.
- Sarangi: It is made up of Toon, Sagwan,Kair and Rohids wood with Gaj (horse hair strings). There are two types of it – Sindhi Sarangi and Gujrati Sarangi. It is often used by Langas of Jaisalmer and Barmer and Jogis of Marwars for singing Khayals of Gopichand, Bharathari and Nihalde.
- Iktara: It is generally played by Nath, Kalbelia Saints and hermits. It is designed as a bamboo stick fitted in a small tumba. It is played along with Kartal on the other hand.
- Bhapang: This is mainly played by Jogis of alwar region. It is made up of a tumba made out of a long gourd. The lower part is covered by animal skin while upper part is left open.
- Kamaycha: It resembles Sarangi. It has a part called Tabli in round shape and covered with leather. The Gaj used to play this has 27 strings. Kamyacha is played by Maganiyars in the region of Jaisalmer and Barmer regions.
- Rawaj: This is similar to Sarangi and played using nail. It has 12 strings. It is played in Mewar by Raos and Bhats.
- Tandura, Chikara, Goorji, Surinda, Dukako and Surmandal are some other Tat Instruments.
- Sushir Instruments – The instruments which are blown by air of mouth.
- Algoza: It is a kind of a flute of Bamboo tube, of which upper part is peeled off and a wooden block is inserted inside to create sound. Usually, two Algozas are played together. It is regarded as favorite instrument in Bheel and Kalbelias tribes.
- Poongi: It is played by Kalbelias and Jogis to charm snakes. It is also made-up gourd or tumbi, of which upper part is narrow and lower part is round.
- Satara: It is a mixture of Algoza, Flute and Shehnai. It has long tube and six holes in it. To change pitch sound, one has to close a hole. It is popularly played by Meghwal, Gadaria and Muslim community in Barmer and Jaisalmer.
- Morchung: It is made of iron and placed in between lips to play sound. The structure of Morchung is lik two rods coming out from round handle and a thin iron rod between in it.
- Bansuris, Shehnai, Surnai, Seengi, Karna, Turhi, Nad, Bhungal, Bankia and Mushak are some other examples of Sushir
- Avanadhh Instrument: they are Taal instruments covered with spin. It devolves rhythm cycle.
- Chung: It is a kind of chime instrument played on Holi festival. The small round part is made up wood with side covering of goat skin.Also known as Dhup in some places. It is placed on shoulder while playing.
- Khanjari: It is specially made of mango wood and one side is covered with skin. It is played by left hand. Kamad, Balai, Bheel, Nath and Kalbelia caste play this instrument.
- Dairun: Bhopas, Bheels, Pujaris of Gopaji play it along with bronze bowl. It is held in right hand and strings are pulled to produce sound.
- Maandal: It is a Mridanga like instrument made of clay. One side is small while other is big. It has a flower on covering skin. It is played along with Thali. It is played for Shiv Gauri.
- Other Avanaddh instruments are Dhaunsa, Maath, Kamar, Kundi, Dhaak, Duff, Ghera, Damama, Dhol, Naubat, Nagara.
- Ghana Instrument – These instruments are made of metals.
- Manjeera: A round shaped instrument made of brass and bronze mixture. Two Manjeeras are joined in the middle with the string. It is used in Terahtaali dance.
- Khadtaal: It is played alon with Iktara, made of two small round discs in between two wodden blocks. They produce sound when collided.
- Jhanjh: It is bigger form of manjeera, of around one foot diameter. When people perform Kachchi Ghodi dance in Shekhawati area, they play Tasha with Jhanjh.
- Rajasthani performer, Saddiq Khan is famous as ‘The Wizard of Khadtaal’.
- Other Instruments are used by tribesman:
- Taarpi: It is made out of big size of bottlegourd where a hole is made in its lower part. A cow horn is also attached while making it. It is played at the time of marriage.
- Paarvi: It produces sound like flute, made up of bamboo. It is cplayed on the occasion of Navratra and Malvia dance.
- Thalisar: An instrument made of brass thali; a bamboo stick is attached in the mid of the Thali.
- TappraItL: It is played to drive away the evil spirits. . People play this in Navratrs before their Kuldevi as the respect. It is played along with.
- KHOKHAR ANS Goria: An instrument made of bamboo. When one hand is struck on the palm, other automatically creates sweet sound.