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  • After the end of Vedic period, construction of political kingdoms took place.
  • Janpada means country ruled by Kshatriya tribe.
  • Brahmin and Buddhist culture flourished during this time.
  • In Rajasthan, it prevailed up to 200-300 A.D.
  1. Matasya Mahajanpada – it included Jaipur, Alwar, and Bharatpur. The capital was Viratnagri which is known as Bairath today.
  2. Saurasena Mahajanpada – The capital was near today’s Mathura. It covered Alwar, Bharatpur, Dholpur, and Karauli region of Rajasthan.
  3. Kuru Mahajanpada – Alwar region came under this and the capital was Indrapath.
  4. Arjunayana Janapada – It included Bharatpur and Alwar region. They were present during Shunga period.
  5. Rajnaya Janpapad – Their ‘Cunningham coins’ indicates it was Mathura based kingdom. But some historians suggest it to be originated from Dholpur of Rajasthan.
  6. Shivi Janapad – After migrating from Punjab to Rajasthan, they established their kingdom in Chittorgarh and covered nearby regions like Udaipur. The capital was known as Madhyamika, which was later named as Nagri. This side was discovered and excavated by D.R. Bhandarkar in 1904.
  7. Malavas – They are mentioned in Mahabhashya of Patanjali. They are believed to be migrated from Punjab to Rajasthan in Jaipur and Tonk area and later went to Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh. Nagar (in Tonk) was the capital.
  8. Shalvya – It is believed that Alwar was earlier known as Salvaputras which was branch of Salvas It is mentioned in Mahabharata.
  9. Yodheya or Yaudheyas – They were a group of settlers living in between Indus and Ganges river. Their mention is found in Panini’s Asthadhyayi and Ganapatha. In Bijayagarh (Bharatpur) inscription includes information about it.
  • Expansion of Mauryan empire can be traced from rock edicts of Ashoka found Bairath in Rajasthan.
  • Another such rock edict found in Kota is known as Kansava rock edicts suggests the presence of Mauryan ruler Dhaval.
  • Rajasthan along with Gujarat, Konkan and Sindh region was called as Upper Janapad.
  • There is evidence found in Bairath and Nagari region of Rajasthan in form of Greek coins.
  • Kumarkal Prabandh depicts that Chittor Fort was built by a Chitrangad Maurya.
  • Kshatrap dynasty’s ruler Rudradaman II was defeated by Samudra Gupta in 351 A.D. and southern Rajasthan region under him was captured into Gupta’s empire.
  • Vikramaditya of Gupta dynasty killed last Shaka ruler Rudra Singh and took away whole Rajasthan under his reign.
  • However, the political influence of Gupta dynasty in Rajasthan was limited and it remained as semi-independent part of their kingdom.
  • In Byana, coins of Gupta period were found in Nagla Chhel.
  • Coins of Kumargupta’s rule was first found in Sambhar (Naliyasar).
  • Some temples like Durra in kota and Shiva temple in Charchoma are fine examples of Gupta age architecture.
  • The Guptas empire was attacked and replaced by Huna king Torman in 503 A.D.
  • Son of King Torman was Mihirkul. He built Shiva temple in Badauli. Gadhia coins, were released by Mihirkul in Mewar and Marwar.
  • Huna princess Haria Devi was married to Guhil king Allat of Mewar.
  • Village Unwas (Hunawas) in Rajasthan was named after Huna dynasty.
  • Gujjars defeated powerful Huna and made Bheenmaal as their capital.
  • It is believed that Huen Sang visted Bheenmaal during those times.
  • King Harshvardhan’s father Prabhakar Vardhan defeated Gujjars
  • He ruled from eastern Rajasthan to southern and western Rajasthan till Thaneshwar.
  • Rise of Rajput occurred after downfall of Vardhan dynasty.
  • They ruled from 650 A.D. to 1200 A.D. (7th century- 12th century)
  • The term Rajput originated after the arrival of Muslims in India.
  • Prominent dynasties of Rajput can be categorized as following:
  1. Pratihar and Rathore of Mewar
  2. Guhil of Mewar
  3. Chauhan of Sambhar
  4. Maurya of Chittor
  5. Chavadas of Bheenmaal and Abu
  6. Kachchawas of Amber
  • Doctrines of origin of Rajput:
  1. Colonel James Todd didn’t see them as old Kshatriyas and called them as Scythians who came from north-west.
  2. Smith and Cook believed them to be foreigners originated from Huns, Kushans, Gujjars.
  3. Chandrabardai’s ‘Prithviraj Raso’ describes them as someone who arose from the fire cistern used in yajna by the sage Vashishtha. Out of it emerged four warriors – Pratihar, Parmar, Solanki and Chauhan.
  4. Gauri Shankar Hira Chand Ojha considered them of Khastriya origin. Arpur inscription of Guhil ruler Shakti Kumar of 977 A.D and Ekling inscription and depiction of Sun on the gold coins of Bappa are some evidences of this. According to him, Guhil glorified Suryavanshi dynasty.
  5. P. Chattopadhya and other advoacted the principle of mixed origin.
  6. They are believed to be exist since Vedic age and are pure Indians, according to Hammir Makahakavya Raso

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