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In ancient times, announcements, messages or instructions by King, were carved into rocks or pillars. These rock edicts are deciphered by archaeologist and historians in order to understand the belief and the system of administration of the kingdom. They are considered as an authentic source. In the following series, we will discuss about the major rock inscriptions of Rajasthan.

  1. Rock Inscription of Barli (443 B.C) 
  • It is first rock inscription in Brahmi script.
  • Found in Ajmer, Rajasthan.
  • About Jain cult and Lord Mahavira.
  1. Hathibada Ghosundi Inscription (1st century B.C)     
  • Hathibada inscription were found in Nagri village, near Chittorgarh.
  • Ghosundi inscription were found in Ghosundi village in Chittorgarh.
  • Written in Brahmin script, both are part of one large inscription.
  • Existence of Krishna and Balarama have been mentioned in first three lines of Ghosundi inscription.
  • Tells about Ashvamedha Yajna performed by King Sarvatata. 
  1. Nandsa Yupe-Stambha (225 A.D) 
  • Found in the middle of a pond of Nandsa village, near Bhilwara.
  • Written in Sanskrit language.
  • Established by Soam.
  • Describes about various sacrificial Yajna by person named Gunaguru.
  1. Barnala Yupe-Stambha (227 A.D) 
  • Found in Barnala and preserved in Amer Museum, Jaipur.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Establishment of seven schools by Soharan King is mentioned .
  1. Badwa Stambha (238-239 A.D) 
  • Found near Badwa in Baran district.
  • Preserved in Kota Museum.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Yajna performed by Maukhari Dynasty.
  • Mention of triratra yajna by three brothers- Balvardhana, Soamdev, and Balsingh.
  1. Bichpuria Stambha inscription (274 A.D) 
  • Present in Bichpuria temple, Uniara (Tonk).
  • Written in Sanskrit language.
  • Depicts yajna performed by Sage Agnihotra in Malava region.
  1. Vijayagarh Yupe-Stambha (278 A.D) 
  • Found on the south wall of Vijayagarh
  • Written in Sanskrit
  • Tells about the Pundareek Yajna by the king Yashovardhan
  1. Gangadhar Inscription (423 A.D) 
  • Found in Jhalawar district.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Provides information of a Vishnu temple and step well built by Mayurakash, a minister of King Vishwakarma.
  • Indicates presence of the feudal system in 5th .
  1. Nagari Inscription (424 A.D) 
  • Found in Nagari village, now in Ajmer Museum.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • About worship of Vishnu .
  1. Inscription of Bharmar Mata (490 A.D) 
  • Found in Choti Sadri, Chittorgarh.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • About rulers of Gaur dynasty and their belief in Shakti cult.
  1. Khand Inscription of Chittorgarh (6th century) 
  • Found in Chittorgarh.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Tells about Vishnudatta as a good merchant and his son as a ‘Rajasthaniya’, an officer deputed by the King.
  • Abhayadutta as Rajvanshiya ruler.
  1. Inscription of Basantgarh (625 A.D) 
  • Found in Basantgarh, Sirohi.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Mention of Raulji, son of Vajra Bhatt as the ruler of Arbud region.
  • Feudal system in administration.
  1. Sambholi Inscription (646 A.D) 
  • Found in Sambholi, Bhomat in Mewar.
  • Written in Sanskrit language.
  • Information about Guhil dynasty of Mewar.
  • Victories of king Shiladitya, he has been compared to moon for his qualities.
  • Economy, education, mining and architecture during his time.
  • Jetak, a man from Vat Nagar, set himself ablaze as a religious tradition.
  1. Nadi Inscription of Aparajit (661 AD) 
  • Found on the wall of Kundeshwar temple.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Victory of King Aparajit against a valiant ruler Varah Singh.
  • About political and religious system of Mewar in 7th century.
  • Constructions of Vishnu temples.
  1. Mandore Inscription (685 A.D) 
  • Engraved on a rock in a Bawadi (step-well) in Mandore, Jodhpur.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • About worship of Shiva and Vishnu by Madhu Brahmin.
  1. Inscription of Maan Mori (713 A.D) 
  • Found in Shankerghatta, Chittorgarh.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Mention of Raja Maan Mori in palaces, temples and step well.
  • Ancient Sun temple was built, which exists till today.
  1. Kanaswan Inscription (738 A.D) 
  • Found in Kanaswan, Kota.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Inscription is built inside a Shiva temple.
  • Name of a ruler- Dhawal is indicates the rule of Mauryan Dynasty in Rajasthan.
  1. Rock Inscription of Ghatiyala (861 A.D) 
  • Four inscriptions found in Ghatiyala, Jodhpur.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • On the one side, achievements and qualities of Pratihar dynasty is shown.
  • Kukkak, the ruler liberated Ghatiyalas from Aabhirs of Marwar. Political and social conditions of his time.
  • The other side gives glimpse of superiority of Brahmins in Society. They also performed puja in Jain temples as ‘Sewaks’.
  1. Inscription of Osian (865 A.D) 
  • Found in Osian, Jodhpur district.
  • Written in Sanskrit language.
  • Affluence of Vatsraj, given title of Ripudaman.
  • Existence of four varnas in society.
  1. Pratapgarh Inscriptions (946 A.D) 
  • Found in Pratapgarh district.
  • Written in Sanskrit in Nagri Script.
  • In region of Bhartrabhatt II, a Sun temple of Indrarajaditya Dev was built.
  1. Rock inscription of Chittorgarh (971 A.D)
  • Found in Chittorgarh but now preserved in Bhartiya Mandir of Ahmedabad.
  • 78 verses written in Sanskrit.
  • About Raja Bhoj and his heirs.
  • Construction of Mahavir Jinalaya in Chittor by Raja Narverma.
  • Mention of prohibition of women in temples in 75th verse shows backward religious beliefs.
  1. Devkulika and Shakti Kumar Inscription of Aahad (977 A.D) 
  • Found in Aahad.
  • Written in Sanskrit language.
  • Description of three kings- Allat, Narwahan, Shakti Kumar.
  • Bravery of Allat in defeating Devpal of Kannauj.
  • Military system of Mewar is described.
  • Shakti Kumar’s inscription was taken by Colonel Todd to England.
  • Lineage of Shakti Kumar with Guhadatt can be found in it.
  1. Jhalarapatan Inscription (1086 A.D) 
  • Found in Sarvasukhia Kothi, Jhalarapatan.
  • Written in Sanskrit.
  • Tells about relationship between Raja Udayaditya and Raja Bhoj.
  • Inscription was graved by Pandit Harsukh.
  • Janak, an oilman, built a temple and step well during this time.

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